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Get A Dictionary of Earth Sciences PDF

By Michael Allaby

ISBN-10: 0199211949

ISBN-13: 9780199211944

This dictionary of earth sciences has been revised and up to date and comprises over 6000 entries, together with planetary technological know-how, distant sensing, information, and series stratigraphy, and giant updating in paleontology, mineralogy, and geophysics.

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The stability of the high-pressure system can make the resultant reduced visibility very persistent and may establish *smog conditions. 8. Antidunes form beneath *standing waves of water that periodically steepen, migrate, and then break upstream. The antidune bedform is characterized by shallow *foresets (see crossstratification) which *dip upstream at an angle of about 10°. Their preservation potential is low, but they can be identified by low-angle (less than 10°) foresets, dipping upcurrent. Normally antidunes show a close association with upper-flow-regime *plane beds.

The angle of incidence is related to the *angle of refraction by *Snell’s law. See also critical angle. angle of internal friction (friction angle) A measure of the ability of a unit of rock or soil to withstand a *shear stress. It is the angle (φ), measured between the normal force (N) and resultant force (R), that is attained when failure just occurs in response to a shearing stress (S). Its tangent (S/N) is the coefficient of sliding friction. Its value is determined experimentally. angle of reflection The angle between a reflected ray or wave and the normal to a reflecting surface.

Apparent dip The dip of the trace of a plane, which is measured from the horizontal in any section non-perpendicular to the *strike of the plane. Compare true dip. See also dip, angle of. apparent polar wander (APW) The line traced on each of the continents by joining together the positions of the *palaeomagnetic poles at different times. The geometry of the line differs for each continent and appears to suggest a path followed by poles that changed their positions over time. In fact, the changing positions of the poles reflect the latitudinal movements and rotations of lithospheric *plates, rather than movements of the poles.

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A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Michael Allaby

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