By Michael Allaby
This dictionary of earth sciences has been revised and up to date and comprises over 6000 entries, together with planetary technological know-how, distant sensing, information, and series stratigraphy, and giant updating in paleontology, mineralogy, and geophysics.
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Additional resources for A Dictionary of Earth Sciences
The stability of the high-pressure system can make the resultant reduced visibility very persistent and may establish *smog conditions. 8. Antidunes form beneath *standing waves of water that periodically steepen, migrate, and then break upstream. The antidune bedform is characterized by shallow *foresets (see crossstratiﬁcation) which *dip upstream at an angle of about 10°. Their preservation potential is low, but they can be identiﬁed by low-angle (less than 10°) foresets, dipping upcurrent. Normally antidunes show a close association with upper-ﬂow-regime *plane beds.
The angle of incidence is related to the *angle of refraction by *Snell’s law. See also critical angle. angle of internal friction (friction angle) A measure of the ability of a unit of rock or soil to withstand a *shear stress. It is the angle (φ), measured between the normal force (N) and resultant force (R), that is attained when failure just occurs in response to a shearing stress (S). Its tangent (S/N) is the coefﬁcient of sliding friction. Its value is determined experimentally. angle of reﬂection The angle between a reﬂected ray or wave and the normal to a reﬂecting surface.
Apparent dip The dip of the trace of a plane, which is measured from the horizontal in any section non-perpendicular to the *strike of the plane. Compare true dip. See also dip, angle of. apparent polar wander (APW) The line traced on each of the continents by joining together the positions of the *palaeomagnetic poles at different times. The geometry of the line differs for each continent and appears to suggest a path followed by poles that changed their positions over time. In fact, the changing positions of the poles reﬂect the latitudinal movements and rotations of lithospheric *plates, rather than movements of the poles.
A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Michael Allaby