By Jacques Descotes
This article presents a concise and complete advent to key immunotoxicological concerns for all these attracted to, yet without past wisdom of, this sector of toxicology. the 1st part explores the well-being effects of immunotoxicity, specifically the opposed results relating to chemically-induced immunosuppression and immunostimulation, allergic reaction reactions and autoimmune illnesses, with an summary of significant immunotoxicants. the second one half describes the most recent equipment used to observe and evaluation, preclinically and clinically, the unforeseen immunotoxic results of xenobiotics. developments in imposing recommendations and up to date adjustments to the regulatory points also are thought of. The 3rd part examines attainable destiny advancements, together with In Vitro tools, biomarkers of immunotixicity and probability overview.
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Additional resources for An introduction to immunotoxicology
Immune changes and infectious complications Every immunocompromised patient is at a greater risk of developing more frequent and/ or more severe infectious complications, and the type of infection is at least partially linked to the type of immune changes evidenced in these patients. , 1995). Patients with congenital defects of the cell-mediated immunity develop severe infections due to pathogens with limited virulence, such as viruses (herpes virus, measles virus), intracellular pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus tuberculosis, atypical mycobacteria), fungi and parasites (Aspergillus, Candida, 24 An Introduction to Immunotoxicology Pneumocystis carinii).
TAPNER, M. C. (1993) Interferon suppresses erythromycin metabolism in rats and human subjects. Hepatology, 17, 230–235. DAVIES, I. (1986) Immunological adjuvants of natural origin and their adverse effects. Adv. Drug React. Ac. Pois. , 1, 1–21. DESCOTES, J. (1985a) Adverse consequences of chemical immunomodulation. Clin. Res. Pract. Drug Regul Affairs, 3, 45–52. DESCOTES, J. (1985b) Immunomodulating agents and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Drug Metab. , 16, 175–184. L. F. (1983) Cimetidine and the immune response.
There is experimental evidence that behavioural conditioning can interfere with the immune response. Neuromediators, such as noradrenaline, acetylcholine and serotonin, have immunomodulatory activities (Dunn, 1995; Madden and Felten, 1995). The immune effects of hormones are not restricted to the immunosuppressive cortisol (Frier, 1990): oestrogens, progesterone and androgens, prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid hormones modulate the immune response. Overview of the Immune System 19 Nutrition and aging Nutrition and aging should not be ignored.
An introduction to immunotoxicology by Jacques Descotes